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Abbasid Caliphate c. 850.

The Abbasid Caliphate wis the third o the Islamic caliphates tae succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It wis foondit bi a dynasty descendit frae Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib (566–653 CE), frae that the dynasty taks its name. Thay ruled as caliphs for maist o the caliphate frae thair caipital in Baghdad in modren-day Iraq, efter haein owerthrawn the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution o 750 CE (132 AH).

The Abbasid Caliphate first centred its govrenment in Kufa, modren-day Iraq, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur foondit the ceety o Baghdad, near the auncient Sasanian caipital ceety o Ctesiphon. The Abbasid period wis merkit bi reliance on Persie bureaucrats (notably the Barmakid faimily) for govrenin the territories as weel as an increasin inclusion o non-Arab Muslims in the ummah (naitional commonty). Persianate customs war braidly adoptit bi the ruling elite, an thay begoud patronage o airtists an scholarts. Baghdad becam a centre o science, cultur, filosofie an invention in whit becam kent as the Gowden Age o Islam.

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